The Black Kite (Milvus migrans) is a medium-sized bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards, and harriers.
This kite is a widespread species throughout the temperate and tropical parts of Eurasia and parts of Australasia. Curiously, it is not found in the Indonesian archipelago between the South East Asian mainland and the Wallace Line. Vagrants, most likely of the Black-eared Kite, on occasion range far into the Pacific, out to the Hawaiian islands (AOU 2000).
European and central Asian birds (subspecies M. m. milvus and M. m. lineatus respectively) are migratory, moving to the tropics in winter, but races in warmer regions such as the Indian M. m. govinda (Pariah Kite) or the Australasian M. m. affinis (Fork-tailed Kite), are resident.
In the northern winter, it is therefore common to have a resident race and a distinguishable migrant form present together in these hotter areas.
In the United Kingdom, the Black Kite occurs only as a wanderer on migration. These birds are usually of the nominate race, but in November 2006 a juvenile of the eastern lineatus, not previously recorded in western Europe, was found in Lincolnshire.
Black Kites will take small live prey as well as fish, household refuse and carrion. They are attracted to fires and smoke where they seek escaping insect prey. They are well adapted to living in cities and are found even in densely populated areas. Large numbers may be seen soaring in thermals over cities. In some places they will readily swoop to take to food held by humans, offered or not, and their habit of swooping to pick up dead rodents from roads often leads to them being hit by vehicles. They are also a major nuisance at some airports where they are considered important birdstrike hazards.
The Black Kite can be distinguished from the Red Kite by its slightly smaller size, less forked tail and generally dark plumage without any rufous.
The Black Kite nests in forest trees, often close to other kites. In winter, many kites will roost together.
The Red Kite has been known to hybridize with the Black Kite (in captivity where both species were kept together, and in the wild on the Cape Verde Islands).
Recent DNA studies suggest that the yellow-billed, African races, parasitus and aegyptius, differ significantly from Black Kites in the Eurasian clade, and should be considered as a separate, allopatric species Yellow-billed Kite, M. aegyptius. They occur throughout Africa except for the Congo basin and the Sahara Desert.
On the other hand, the same study suggests that the Black-eared Kite (M. m. lineatus), sometimes separated as M. lineatus, is not sufficiently distinctive to justify specific status. As molecular information is much more reliable in this species than in the Red Kite, the Black-eared Kite should be regarded a distinct allopatric subspecies.
- Milvus migrans migrans (Boddaert, 1783): European Black Kite
Breeds central, southern and eastern Europe to Tien Shan and south to northwest Pakistan. Winters in Sub-Saharan Africa.
- Milvus migrans lineatus (J. E. Gray, 1831): Black-eared Kite
Siberia to Amurland S around Himalaya to N India, N Indochina and S China; Japan. Northern inland birds migrate to E Persian Gulf coast and S Asia in winter.
- Milvus migrans govinda (Sykes, 1832): Pariah Kite
Eastern Pakistan east through tropical India and Sri Lanka to Indochina and Malay Peninsula. Resident.
- Milvus migrans affinis (Gould, 1838): Fork-tailed Kite
Sulawesi and possibly Lesser Sunda Islands; Papua New Guinea except mountains; NE and E Australia.
- Milvus migrans formosanus (Kuroda, 1920): Taiwan Kite
Taiwan and Hainan; resident.
Eulo, SW Queensland, Australia
Black Kites in Spain prey on nestling waterfowl May to feed their young. Predation of nests of other pairs of Black Kites has also been noted.
Milvus migrans in Hyderabad, India.
Milvus migrans govinda calling in Kolkata.
M. m. govinda calling in flight in Kolkata
M. m. govinda (Immature) in Kolkata
M. m. govinda (Pariah Kite from South Asia)
Juveniles at nest at Palmyra Palm (Borassus flabillifer) in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Juvenile at nest in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Immature trying to learn flying at Palmyra Palm (Borassus flabillifer) in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Calling in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
at Sultanpur National Park in Gurgaon District of Haryana, India.
Pre-mating ritual of holding claws etc. (M. m. govinda) (Immature) in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Playing in the evening (M. m. govinda) in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
bathing in the rain (M. m. govinda) in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Feeding (M. m. govinda) in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
in flight (M. m. govinda) in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
A Japanese black kite Japan
- ^ Jeff A. Johnson, Richard T. Watson and David P. Mindell (2005) Prioritizing species conservation: does the Cape Verde kite exist? Proc. R. Soc. B 272:1365"?1371 PDF fulltext
- ^ Schreiber, Arnd; Stubbe, Michael & Stubbe, Annegret (2000): Red kite (Milvus milvus) and black kite (M. migrans): minute genetic interspecies distance of two raptors breeding in a mixed community (Falconiformes: Accipitridae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 69'(3): 351"?365. doi:10.1006/bijl.1999.0365 (HTML abstract)
- ^ Veiga, J. P. and Hiraldo, F. 1990. Food habits and the survival and growth of nestlings in two sympatric kites (Miivus milvus and Milvus migrans). Holarct. Ecol. 13: 62-71.