The Scarlet-throated Tanager, Compsothraupis loricata, is a small passerine bird. It is placed in the tanager family, although highly aberrant, with some even having suggested that it could be a corvid or icterid. It is the only member of the genus Compsothraupis.
The Scarlet-throated Tanager is one of the largest tanagers; 21 cm (8½ in) in length and with a weight of 72.5g. Females are entirely black, while males have red throat. It is endemic to north-eastern Brazil, being almost entirely restriced to the region dominated by Caatinga. It is often found near water and typically at elevations of 200-1000 m (650-3300 ft). Typically seen in pairs or groups of up to 8 individuals. Has a habit of perching on branches high in trees. Slow-moving. In the breeding season, males fluff the feathers of the back to show off the white bases. The nest is well hidden, and typically placed deep in vegetation or in an abandoned woodpeckers hole.