The Alagoas Foliage-gleaner, Philydor novaesi, is a passerine bird which is endemic to Brazil.
This species was first discovered in 1979 at Murici in Alagoas, although there have been few sightings in that area since. In 2003 it was discovered at the Frei Caneca Private Reserve in Pernambuco. Due to its rarity it has been classified by BirdLife International as critically endangered. The current population is estimated at between 50 and 249.
It is a member of the South American bird family Furnariidae, a group in which many species build elaborate clay nests, giving rise to the English name for the family of "ovenbirds".
The Alagoas Foliage-gleaner is 18 cm long with plain rufous-brown plumage. Sexes are similar. It inhabits interior upland forest at 400-550 m, and has been found singly, in pairs or small groups, and often join mixed-species flocks including Lesser Woodcreeper.
The major threat to its existence is habitat destruction, and the clearance of Atlantic forest in Alagoas and Pernambuco has left few other sites likely to support populations of this species.
The binomial of this bird commemorates the Brazilian ornithologist Fernando da Costa Novaes.