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GALLERIES > BIRDS > PASSERIFORMES > FRINGILLIDAE > APAPANE [Himatione sanguinea]


Apapane Image @ Kiwifoto.com
 
 
Location: Thurston Lava Tube, Hawaii
GPS: 19.4N, -155.3W, elev=3,559' MAP
Date: October 15, 2007
ID : 6528 [3888 x 2592]

Apapane Photo @ Kiwifoto.com
 
 
Location: Thurston Lava Tube, Hawaii
GPS: 19.4N, -155.3W, elev=3,559' MAP
Date: October 15, 2007
ID : 6497 [3888 x 2592]

nature photography

Apapane Photo @ Kiwifoto.com
 
 
Location: Volcanoes Natl Park, Hawaii
GPS: 19.4N, -155.3W, elev=3,559' MAP
Date: October 22, 2015
ID : B13K9671 [4896 x 3264]

bird photography

Apapane Image @ Kiwifoto.com
 
 
Location: Thurston Lava Tube, Hawaii
GPS: 19.4N, -155.3W, elev=3,559' MAP
Date: October 15, 2007
ID : 6530 [3888 x 2592]

Apapane Picture @ Kiwifoto.com
 
 
Location: Thurston Lava Tube, Hawaii
GPS: 19.4N, -155.3W, elev=3,559' MAP
Date: October 15, 2007
ID : 6553 [3888 x 2592]

bird photography

Apapane Picture @ Kiwifoto.com
 
 
Location: Thurston Lava Tube, Hawaii
GPS: 19.4N, -155.3W, elev=3,559' MAP
Date: October 15, 2007
ID : 6573 [3888 x 2592]

nature photography

SPECIES INFO

The 'Apapane (Himatione sanguinea) is a species of finch in the Fringillidae family.It is endemic to Hawai?i. Just like the Iiwi, a native bird to the Hawaiian Islands, the feathers of the Apapane were once used to adorn the chief's clothes like cloaks, helmets, and feather leis. The bright crimson feathers were only collected from the adult Apapane, not from the duller juvenile Apapane. Apapane are found many times in small companies, foraging actively through tree tops of Ohia lehua, hopping from flower to flower consuming the nectar from each flower they probe while also plinatig it at the same time. Forages are mostly done in the upper forest canopy and only rarely do they feed from the ground. The bird is considered to be a active singer. The males are known for their singing patterns at all times of the day. They have six different calls and about ten differently recorded song patterns. The contact call or song of a male Apapane is mainly used for mate attraction and breeding. The male who is aggressive and sings the loudest is the one who wins the females attention. Once courtship and pair formation has been established, and copulation is complete, both male and female Apapane are involved in the nestling process. The male role is important for maintaining courtship feeding during the nest construction and incubation period. The male Apapane sings continuously during incubation, while the female does not sing at all. His loud whistling, and chirping sound chases other male birds away from the nesting tree, while he sits on an adjacent perch guarding the nest. The Apapane have two distinct flight patterns: straight flight and a circling flight.

An adult Apapane has a slender shape at a height of about 13cm when fully grown. A male Apapane weighs in at about 16 grams, just only a few grams heavier than the female. There is a distinct gender difference between the two. The major traits of an adult Apapane are the slightly curved dark bluish bill; bright crimson top and back; white bottom and under tail; with black wings and legs. A unique characteristic of the Apapane is the cocked white tail. The white under tail is a distinctive feature that separates the Apapane from the other similar native birds. Juvenile Apapane are pink in color when hatched and are covered in patches of dull brownish feathers. The brown color changes to crimson at maturity.

They are commonly found in the wet, mesic forests of Ohia lehua tree blossoms, located on the island of Kauai at Kokee Park, Koolau Range on Oahu, and a large population of Apapane at the Volcano National Park on the Big Island of Hawaii. The nest of the Apapane are mostly found in the crown of the Ohia trees but evidence has shown that nests have also been found in lava tubes on the Island of Hawaii. The Ohia lehua tree is a native plant to the Hawaiian Islands and is mostly found in high altitudes above 1250m above the sea level. The Laysan race of the Apapane (Himatione sanguinea freethii)was restricted to Laysan in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

The Apapane can be found on six out of the eight Hawaiian Islands because the Apapane prefer a habitat in high altitude regions for protection from predators like the mongoose, rat, and deadly avian malaria carrying mosquitoes These predators are the cause for the great decline in the Apapane population. Today there are an estimated 3000 Apapane in Hawaii. Still low in numbers but the Apapane is not considered to be an endangered species.

The Apapane generally feed on nectar from flowers preferably from the Ohia lehua tree. Although primarily nectavorous, the diet of a grown Apapane also includes a variety of insects like grasshoppers, caterpillars and bugs of all sorts.

The breeding season is during the months of January thru July. Only female Apapane incubate. After hatching, both male and female feed the young juveniles and care for them until they are reading to fly out on their own time. The female have approximately 2-4 eggs (white in color with red markings) a year. Incubation lasting 13-14 days and during this time the female does not sing at all. When the chicks are born the eyes are closed and it will take four days to open. After the sixth day blotches of brown feathers begin to appear on the back and the mouth lining is pink in color.



                                     




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Listen to the Apapane Call:



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