The Band-winged Nightjar (Caprimulgus longirostris) is a species of nightjar in the Caprimulgidae family. It is widespread in South America, where found in the Andes, Venezuelan Coastal Range, Santa Marta Mountains, Tepuis, most of Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and eastern Brazil. It occurs in a wide range of habitats, from the edge of humid montanes forest to shrubby semi-deserts (e.g. in south-eastern Brazil, it may even roost on roofs in major cities), but it strictly avoids tropical humid lowland forests such as the Amazon.
Over its large range, there are signifincant variations in its morphology, but, as suggested by its common name, it always has a distinctive band in the wing (best visible in flight), which is white in the male, buff in the female. Traditionally, "only" seven subspecies have been recognized, but two new subspecies, one from Chile and another from Brazil, have been described within the last few years.