The Black-and-yellow Tanager, Chrysothlypis chrysomelaena, is a medium-sized passerine bird. This small tanager is an endemic resident breeder in the hills of Costa Rica and Panama
The Black-and-yellow Tanager is found in the foothills and slopes on the Caribbean side of the central mountain ranges, typically from 600 m to 1200 m altitude, and occasionally down to 400 m. The preferred habitat is the canopy of wet forest and tall second growth, but it will feed lower at woodland edges and clearing. The neat cup nest is built on a tree branch. The eggs are undescribed.
The adult Black-and-yellow Tanager is 12 cm long and weighs 12.5g. The adult male has a bright yellow head, rump and underparts, and a black back, wings and tail. The wing linings are white. The female has olive upperparts and yellow underparts, becoming white on the belly. She could be mistaken for a warbler, but has white tufts at the sides of the breast. Immatures resemble the adult female, but are yellower below, especially on the belly.
Black-and-yellow Tanagers occur in small groups, or as part of a mixed-species feeding flock. This species feeds on small fruit, usually swallowed whole, insects and spiders.
The Black-and-yellow Tanager's call is a scratchy single or repeated tsew, higher and faster than that of the Silver-throated Tanager.