The Chestnut-mandibled Toucan, or Swainson's Toucan (Ramphastos swainsonii) is a near-passerine bird which breeds from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia. This species is replaced from southern Colombia to eastern Peru by the closely related Black-mandibled Toucan, R. ambiguus, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific. The scientific and alternative English names commemorate English ornithologist and artist, William Swainson.
Like other toucans, the Chestnut-mandibled is brightly marked and has a large bill. The male is 56cm long and weighs 750g (26.5 oz). The smaller female is typically 52cm long and weighs 580g (20.5 oz).
The sexes are alike in appearance, mainly black with maroon hints to the head, upper back and lower breast. The face and upper breast are bright yellow, with narrow white and broader red lines forming a lower border. The upper tail is white and the lower abdomen is red. The legs are blue. The body plumage is similar to that of the smaller Keel-billed Toucan, but the bill pattern is quite different, being diagonally divided into bright yellow and maroon.
Juvenile birds are sooty-black, and have duller plumage, particularly with respect to the bib, red border, and lower mandible. They are fed by the parents for several weeks after leaving the nest.
The call of the Chestnut-mandibled Toucan is a yelping yo-YIP, a-yip, a-yip, or a Dios te dé, Dios te dé. It is given to maintain contact as the flock travels in "follow-my-leader" style through the trees, but also in chorus at the evening roosts.
Small flocks, usually consisting of 3-12 birds, move through the forest with an undulating flight, rarely travelling more than 100 m at a time. This species is primarily an arboreal fruit-eater, but will also take insects, lizards, bird eggs, and other small prey. Flocks will follow Keel-billed Toucans to exploit their sources of food.
The Chestnut-mandibled Toucan is a resident breeder in moist lowland forest. The 2-4 white eggs are laid in an unlined cavity high in a decayed section of a living tree, or occasionally in an old woodpecker nest in a dead tree.
Both sexes incubate the eggs for at 14-15 days, and the toucan chicks remain in the nest after hatching. They are blind and naked at birth, and have short bills and specialised pads on their heels to protect them from the rough floor of the nest. They are fed by both parents, and fledge after about 6 weeks.
It is illegal to take toucans or any other protected wild bird species from their nest.