The Black-rumped Buttonquail (Turnix hottentottus) is a small species of bird in the buttonquail genus.
It is found in open grassland through much of Africa outside the forested and more arid regions. It is resident in the central parts of the range but is a migratory breeder further north.
This species has a brown back, rufous chest, and pale belly. As usual for buttonquails but not for most birds, the female is larger and brighter than the male.
Most of the range is occupied by the subspecies T. h. nana, which has brown irides and a black rump. The nominate subspecies, T. h. hottentottus, which is confined to coastal fynbos in South Africa, has pale irides and a paler rump. It is sometimes split as the Hottentot Buttonquail, leaving the Black-rumped Buttonquail as Turnix nana.
This species is shy and difficult to flush.