Latham's Snipe, Gallinago hardwickii, also known as Japanese Snipe, is a medium-sized (length 29-33 cm, wingspan 50-54 cm, weight 150-230 g), long-billed, migratory wader.
Identifiable as a Gallinago snipe by its cryptically-patterned black, brown, buff and white plumage, but is not easily distinguished from Swinhoe's and Pin-tailed Snipe in the field, though it is slightly larger.
Breeds mainly in Hokkaid? in northern Japan, with smaller numbers on Honsh?, the eastern Russian mainland and, historically, Sakhalin and the Kurile Islands. The entire population migrates and spends the non-breeding season principally in eastern Australia, where it is the commonest Gallinago snipe. Recorded on migration in Taiwan, the Philippines and New Guinea, and is a rare straggler to New Zealand.
Breeding habitat in Asia: alpine moorland, grasslands, rough pasture, young tree plantations and cultivated areas. Non-breeding habitat in Australia: shallow freshwater wetlands of various kinds with bare mud or shallow water for feeding, with good nearby vegetation cover for shelter.
Latham's Snipe is an omnivorous species that feeds on seeds and other plant material (mainly from species in families such as Cyperaceae, Poaceae, Juncaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae and Fabaceae), and on invertebrates including insects (mainly flies and beetles), earthworms, spiders and occasionally molluscs, isopods and centipedes.
Display flights and drumming by the males. Nests on the ground, concealed in vegetation, with a clutch of four eggs.
Internationally, Latham's Snipe is considered to be a species of Least Concern. In Australia it used to be hunted as a gamebird but is now completely protected.