The Tawny-throated Dotterel (Oreopholus ruficollis) is a species of bird in the Charadriidae family. It is monotypic within the genus Oreopholus. It breeds in the Andes in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru. Non-breeding migrants reach Ecuador, Brazil and Uruguay and it is a vagrant to the Falkland Islands. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, temperate grassland, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, and pastureland.
A prehistoric relative, Oreopholus orcesi, has been described from fossil remains.