The Yellow-throated Woodpecker (Piculus flavigula) is a species of bird in the Picidae family, the woodpeckers, piculets, and wrynecks. It is found in northern and central South America in Brazil and the entire Amazon Basin; also the Guianas, and Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Besides the Amazon Basin it is found in the southeast basin in the adjoining Tocantins-Araguaia River drainage; on the east at the edge of its range there, it only occurs in the headwaters of the Tocantins, then recontinues at the joining of the Araguaia-Tocantins as it goes to the Atlantic Ocean.
Two separated disjunct poplulations occur in Brazil at the southeast coastal regions, (parts of the Caatinga). The largest group extends for 1500 km; the smaller only about 200 km. In Venezuela, it is found in the east and southeast and covers most of the Orinoco River drainage.
Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical swamps.